I have received several questions about the ethics of publishing case reports in biomedical journals.
In short, if the manuscript is a case report, the authors must submit an approval letter from the hospital / university, in which they clearly state that the authors are allowed to publish the result of that case report, and the patient has authorized them to publish the analysis of their medical records anonymously.
Usually, when a patient attends a hospital or clinic, they read and sign a form that allows the institute to use their data anonymously for the progress of the medical science. So, My suggestion is that any approval letter from the institute / hospital that states such things are accepted.
I suggest the readers of my weblog to read an article on 'Informed Consent for Case Reports' by Stephen B. Levine, M.D. and Susan J. Stagno, M.D. on the link below: